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PENNVERNON Window Glass is becoming ever more widely recognized as a sheet glass 
of unusually high quality. The rapidly increasing use of Pennvernon throughout the 
country proves it. # We have been asked again and again, "Why is Pennvernon Window 
Glass superior to ordinary window glass? What is the explanation of its higher quality?" 
These questions may be answered in two words: Pennvernon Craftsmanship. % A high 
type of American worker who is intensely interested in and proud of his work ... the latest, 
most modern production methods and machinery . . . continuous research and develop- 
ment of even better manufacturing devices and formulae ... all these factors enter into 
the creation and maintenance of the Pennvernon Craftsmanship which makes Pennvernon 
a better window glass. # If you could take a trip through a Pennvernon manufacturing 
plant . . . watch the Pennvernon Craftsmen as they do their work skilfully and painstakingly 
. - . view personally the processes of melting, drawing, cutting, washing, inspecting, 
labeling, papering, packing and shipping . . . you would come to a thorough under- 
standing of this craftsmanship. # But since such a personal visit is in most cases impossible, 
we offer you this booklet as the next best thing. It takes you through a Pennvernon plant 
by means of dramatic and interesting photographs . . . describes the processes illustrated 
. . . and will, we are confident, incline you to agree with us that the elements of Pennvernon 
Craftsmanship depicted here can inevitably have but one result: the Making of a Leader. 



PITTS B U KG H 

PLATE GLASS COMPANY 



•INGREDIENTS 

The first step in the process that makes 
Permvernon a leader. Here the ingredi- 
ents of the "batch" mixture are being 
accurately weighed to assure uniform 
results. The proportions of sand, lime, 
soda, etc., are carefully controlled, ac- 
cording to a special formula . . . and are 
accurate in weight to a few ounces in 
many tons. Incidentally, these ingredi- 
ents are of the best, costing considerably 
more than those which would be neces- 
sary to make just ordinary window glass. 




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•AUTOMATIC 
WEIGHING 

The large quantities of ingredients used 
in making Pennvernon Window Glass, 
must be added to the "batch" mixture in 
exact proportions . . . and this automatic 
weighing machine, supervised by a skil- 
ful Pennvernon Craftsman, helps to in- 
sure accuracy of measurement. 






• LOADING 



Huge hoppers, suspended on overhead 
tracks, carry the mixed ingredients to 
the melting tanks. Here, the hoppers 
have given up their load, and this Penn- 
vernon Craftsman is feeding the "batch" 
to the furnace. Each Pennvernon melt- 
ing tank receives approximately 100 
tons a day of raw materials to reduce to 
molten "metal". In the process of melt- 
ing, 1,250,000 cu. ft. of gas are burned 
per day in each tank, and temperatures 
inside the tank reach 2730 degrees, F. 
In each tank, molten glass is four feet 
eleven inches deep, and each tank con- 
tains from 1300 to 1500 tons. 







•BREAKING UP 
THE LUMPS 

When a new "batch" is added to 
a melting tank, the terrific heat 
sometimes fuses the mingled in- 
gredients into lumpy masses 
which float on the surface of the 
molten "metal' ' . To assure proper 
melting, these lumps must be 
broken up. Here, a Pennvernon 
Craftsman is shown doing the 
job with his thirty foot steel poker, 
his face and eyes protected from 
the murderous heat and glare of 
the tank's interior by a wooden 
shield glazed with blue glass. 



'TANK INSPECTION 

The maintenance of proper tem- 
peratures inside the Pennvernon 
melting tanks is extremely im- 
portant. This Pennvernon Crafts- 
man, with his pyrometer, con- 
stantly maintains a vigil that as- 
sures proper melting conditions. 
To take a temperature reading, 
he manipulates a knob on the 
box-like machine at his waist, 
until the glowing platinum wire 
in his telescopic spy glass merges 
with the color of the molten 
"metal" as seen through the 
complex system of color filters 
with which his glass is fitted. 




•SKIMMING 



Fire is the great purifier, they 
say . . . but it doesn't purify the 
Pennvernon "batch" enough to 
meet the high Pennvernon stand- 
ards. Here is a Pennvernon 
Craftsman whose job it is to 
watch constantly the molten glass 
within the tank through his little 
peep-hole door . . , and when 
defects such as stones, fragments, 
etc., float by f he dips them off 
with his long-handled ladle. 





•DEPTH 

MEASUREMENT 

The depth of molten glass in 
Pennvernon tanks is rigorously 
controlled. Every few minutes, 
a Pennvernon Craftsman checks 
the depth of the "metal" with his 
measuring rod ... a long bar 
with a right-angled, vertical bend 
at the end of it which discloses, 
upon examination after with- 
drawal from the tank, the depth 
of the molten glass within. 







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• DRAWING 
MACHINE 

Direct from the surface of 
the molten glass in the melt- 
ing tank, up through this 
most modern of drawing 
machines, is the route taken 
by the glowing liquid 
"metal" which eventually 
becomes Pennvernon 
Window Glass. This ma- 
chine, drawing the glass 
vertically and keeping it 
absolutely flat, from molten 
"metal" to finished sheet, 
is one of the chief reasons 
why Pennvernon Window 
Glass is of such superior 
quality. 



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•PENNVERNON 
PROCESS 

As the molten glass is drawn up 
into the drawing machine, it 
gradually cools, until, by the 
time the slowly moving, new- 
formed sheet of glass reaches 
the first pair of rolls seen in the 
picture, its surfaces are cooled 
and finished beyond possibility 
of injury. Nothing can possibly 
touch and mar the bright, smooth 
surfaces of the glass during its 
formative period. 



•CALIBRATION 

Here, at the top of the drawing 
machine, thirty feet above the 
tank of molten glass whence it 
started, the finished sheet of 
Pennvernon Window Glass 
emerges on the cut-off floor. This 
Pennvernon Craftsman is care- 
fully calibrating the glass to make 
sure it is of proper and uniform 
thickness. 




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'VACUUM CUPS FOR FINGERS 

When Pennvernon Glass of greater thickness than 
ordinary single or double strength is being drawn, 
and is being cut off in larger sizes from the sheet as 
it emerges from the drawing machine, the heavy 
sheets are handled by machinery. The man shown 
here operates an automatic apparatus that clamps 
vacuum cups of rubber on the glass, lifts it aside after 
it has been cut from the machine, and places it 
gently, as the suction of the vacuum cups is released, 
upon the trimming table. 




'TRIMMING 
TABLE 

Here this Pennvernon Crafts- 
man trims off the uneven edges, 
shifting the great sheet of glass, 
when necessary, by means of a 
foot lever which raises the sheet 
on well-oiled rollers and permits 
of its easy handling. 



• READY TO LEAVE 

Once the large sheets are trimmed, the vacuum 
cups are again called into service to lift them 
carefully from the trimming table and deposit 
them on this suspended trolley. When the 
trolley is loaded, it is rolled off the cut-off 
floor into the cutting department. 




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•CUTTING 

Pennvernon Craftsmen like 
this one, knowing from long 
experience all there is to 
know about cutting sheet 
glass quickly and accu- 
rately, take the sheets of 
Pennvernon as they come 
from the cut-off room and 
cut them into the standard 
and special sizes required 
to fill the Pennvernon orders 
pouring in from all over 
the country. Pennvernon 
is very easy to cut. A sweep 
of the arm ... a gentle tap 
. . . and the job is done. 









•EDGE INSPECTION 

As a check on the grading of the glass, Penn- 
vernon is subjected at frequent regular in- 
tervals to a rigid edge inspection. One edge 
of the light of glass is inserted in the slot of a 
mercury vapor lamp, and then this Penn- 
vernon Craftsman checks it carefully, by the 
violet light which illuminates the edges, for 
seeds, imperfections, etc. 



•WASHING 



This machine sprays water upon sheets of 
Pennvernon Window Glass, scrubs the glass 
on both surfaces with soft brushes to remove 
finger marks, dust, etc., and dries the glass 
again ... all in one continuous operation. 




'SPECIAL SHIPPING CARTONS 

Pennvernon Window Glass is not only manufactured in 
such a way as to insure the very highest quality possible, 
but every precaution is taken in the packing and shipping 
of the glass to preserve that fine quality. Here is a Penn- 
vernon Craftsman preparing some of the moisture-proof, 
asphalt-lined, corrugated cartons in which Pennvernon 
Window Glass is placed before being further protected for 
shipment by the slatted wooden Pennvernon shipping crate. 



• CRATE MAKING 

A complete crate manufacturing 
plant is maintained in connec- 
tion with each Pennvernon 
Window Glass plant. Here lum- 
ber is sawed into proper lengths, 
the Pennvernon name and glass 
size is stamped on the end mem- 
bers of the future crate, and 
then Pennvernon Craftsmen like 
this one assemble the units , . . 
and the nailing machine does 
the rest. 



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•PAPERING FOR 
PROTECTION 

Between every light of Penn- 
vernon and the next is placed a 
sheet of soft, absorbent, non- 
scratching, protective paper, be- 
fore the glass is packed in car- 
tons and crates. This painstaking 
care to safeguard the excellence 
of Pennvernon, to protect it from 
moisture and chemicals, to pre- 
vent its scratching or being other- 
wise harmed during shipment, 
is reflected in the excellent con- 
dition in which Pennvernon 
Window Glass arrives at its final 
destination for use. 




'PACKING 



A new method of packing safe- 
guards Pennvernon Window 
Glass against breakage, staining 
and scratching during shipment, 
insures much greater conven- 
ience in unpacking and repack- 
ing the glass at its destination, 
and provides greater protection 
for handlers against being cut 
by dropped lights, etc. The glass, 
with sheets of paper between 
lights, is placed in an asphalt- 
lined, moisture-proof carton, and 
then the carton slides easily into 
the specially designed light- 
weight Pennvernon wood crate. 







• 




'WAREHOUSING 



Once packed, Pennvernon Window Glass is shipped to pro- 
gressive glass jobbers throughout the country, who carry a 
complete stock of sizes and qualities. The glass is also distributed 
to Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company warehouses in leading cities. 
These jobbers and warehouses then supply Pennvernon Window 
Glass in the desired sizes and qualities to the ultimate users of 
this fine window glass. Thus ends the long and carefully con- 
trolled journey of Pennvernon from raw materials to finished 
glass in the hands of the consumer . . . and on every step of the 
way, that indefinable but invaluable quality . . . Pennvernon 
Craftsmanship . . . makes absolutely sure that Pennvernon 
Window Glass will be a clearer, brighter, better-looking and 
longer-lasting glass. 







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•WAREHOUSES 



PENNVERNON WINDOW GLASS 

is available through progressive glass jobbers 
everywhere, and at the following warehouses 
of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. 



AKRON, Ohio 

101 Lincoln Street 

ALBANY, N. Y. 

N. Ferry St., East of Broadway 

ALLENTOWN, Pa. 

827 North 12th Street 

AMARILLO, Texas 

Thirteenth and Grant Streets 

ATLANTA, Ga. 

172-174 Marietta Street, N. W. 

BALTIMORE, Md. 

8-12 S. Paca Street 

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. 

912 North 20th Street 

BOSTON, Mass. 

300-316 Babcock Street 

BRONX, N. Y. 

144th and Exterior Streets 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Jay, Water & Plymouth Streets 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 

101-107 Seneca Street 

BUTTE, Mont. 

840 Utah Avenue 

CHARLOTTE, N. C. 

214-216 East 6th Street 

CHICAGO, 111. 

431-451 St. Clair Street 

CINCINNATI, Ohio 

B'way, Court & Eggleston Aves. 

CLEVELAND, Ohio 

3849 Hamilton Avenue 

COLUMBUS, Ohio 

324 East Second Avenue 

DALLAS, Texas 

Santa Fe Terminal Building 

DAVENPORT, Iowa 

414-428 Scott Street 

DENVER, Colo. 

Broadway at Market 

DES MOINES, Iowa 

108 East 4th Street 

DETROIT, Mich. 

Hamilton & Holden Avenues 

EL PASO, Texas 

1100-06 Overland Street 



FORT WORTH, Texas 

321-323 S. Main Street 

GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. 

21-23 S. Ionia Avenue 

HARRISBURG, Pa. 

1 7th and Brookwood Streets 

HARTFORD, Conn. 

38-40 Chapel Street 

HIGH POINT, N. C. 

431 Hamilton Street 

HOUSTON, Texas 

Crawford & Commerce Streets 

INDIANAPOLIS, Ind. 

59-61 South State Avenue 

JACKSONVILLE, Fla. 

1252-56 W. Beaver Street 

KANSAS CITY, Mo. 

5th and Wyandotte Streets 

KNOXVILLE, Tenn. 

203-211 Humes Street 

LITTLE ROCK, Ark. 

Foot of Scott Street 

LOUISVILLE, Ky. 

16th and Main Streets 

MEMPHIS, Tenn. 

435 Madison Avenue 

MILWAUKEE, Wis. 

816-830 North Market Street 

MINEOLA, N. Y. 

49 Windsor Avenue 

MINNEAPOLIS, Minn. 

616-628 South Third Street 

MT. VERNON, N. Y. 

556-562 S. Fulton Avenue 

NASHVILLE, Tenn. 

Grundy St. and 11th Ave., North 

NEWARK, N. J. 

Elizabeth Ave. & Peddie Street 

NEW HAVEN, Conn. 

26 Mill Street 

NEW ORLEANS, La. 

1500Poydras Street 

OKLAHOMA CITY, Okla. 

101-103 E. California Avenue 

OMAHA, Neb. 

14th and Jones Streets 



PEORIA, 111. 

913-917 S. Washington Street 
PHILADELPHIA, Pa. 
16th and Indiana Avenue 
(N. Philadelphia Station) 

PITTSBURGH, Pa. 
632-642 Duquesne Way 

ROANOKE, Va. 

14-24 Pleasant Avenue, S. E. 

ROCHESTER, N. Y. 

362 Exchange Street 

SAGINAW, Mich. 
Fitzhugh and Water Streets 

SAN ANTONIO, Texas 

1420-1426 S. Alamo Street 

SAVANNAH, Ga. 

Central of Georgia Terminals 

SCRANTON, Pa. 

Wyoming Ave. at New Street 

SHREVEPORT, La. 

Fannin and Commerce Streets 

SOUTH BEND, Ind. 

1 138-1 140 S. Lafayette Street 

SPRINGFIELD, Mass. 

40 Albany Street 

ST. LOUIS, Mo. 

3900 Chouteau Avenue 

ST. PAUL, Minn. 

459-461 Jackson Street 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

838 Erie Boulevard, West 

TAMPA, Fla. 

1006-1008 Ashley Street 

TOLEDO, Ohio 

2410-2416 Albion Street 

TULSA, Okla. 

Detroit and Archer Streets 

UTICA, N. Y. 

615 Eagle Street 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

4th and Channing Streets, N. E. 

WILKES-BARRE, Pa. 

54 Scott Street 

YOUNGSTOWN, Ohio 

214-218 East Boardman Street 



Copyright, 1935, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company 



PRINTED IN U.S.A. 5123 15M 4-35